روش های گوناگون آموزش مجازی علوم پزشکی استفاده شده در ایران و بررسی اثربخشی آنان، مطالعه مروری

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 عضو هیأت علمی، دانشکده ی داروسازی، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی جندی شاپور اهواز، اهواز، ایران.

2 داروساز

چکیده

رشد روزافزون فناوری اطلاعات و ابزارهای الکترونیکی همچنین محدودیت‌های موجود در آموزش سنتی باعث شده است که از آموزش الکترونیک به‌عنوان روشی جایگزین و یا مکمل در زمینۀ آموزش علوم پزشکی نام برده شود. به‌منظور استفاده از روش‌های آموزش الکترونیک در علوم پزشکی، بومی‌سازی و انجام مطالعات پژوهشی برای بررسی اثربخشی آن‌ها ضروری است. به این منظور این مطالعه مروری به بررسی مطالعات انجام‌شده مرتبط با آموزش مجازی در علوم پزشکی در ایران می‌پردازد. برای جستجو با استفاده از لغات کلیدی مانند آموزش مجازی، آموزش الکترونیک و آموزش به کمک کامپیوتر، از پایگاه اطلاعاتی Google scholar به‌منظور یافتن مقالات فارسی و به‌منظور یافتن مقالات لاتین از PUBMED و Scopus استفاده گردید. درنتیجه جستجو تعداد محدودی (35 مقاله) درزمینه‌های نرم‌افزارهای آموزشی، ابزار چندرسانه‌ای، مطالعات مبتنی بر آموزش تحت وب با استفاده از سامانه‌های آموزشی الکترونیک، استفاده از پست الکترونیک و تلفن همراه، آزمون‌های الکترونیک و آموزش مداوم به روش الکترونیک، بیمار مجازی یافت شد و از بین آن‌ها 27 مقاله انتخاب شد. اغلب مطالعات نشان دادند آموزش مجازی اثربخشی برابر و یا بیشتر نسبت به آموزش سنتی دارد همچنین نگرش مثبت و رضایت بالایی نزد دانشجویان و اعضای هیأت ‌علمی در خصوص استفاده از آموزش مجازی در اغلب مطالعات ذکرشده است. اما با توجه به اینکه اثر آموزش مجازی بر یادگیری و رضایت فراگیرندگان و مدرسین می‌تواند بسته به روش استفاده شده و رشته‌های مختلف در علوم پزشکی متفاوت باشد در کشور ما نیاز به انجام مطالعات گسترده‌تری در این زمینه می‌باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Different Methods of Medical Sciences Virtual Education in Iran and Assessment of their Efficacy; a Review Article

نویسندگان [English]

  • Kaveh Eslami 1
  • leila kouti 1
  • amin noori 2
1 Assistant Professor of Clinical Pharmacy, Clinical Pharmacy Department, Pharmacy Faculty, Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran.
2 Pharmacist
چکیده [English]

The growing IT and electronic devices as well as limitations in traditional education have led to the use of virtual education as an alternative. In order to use e-learning methods in medical science, localization and research studies to evaluate its effectiveness is essential. The purpose of this study was to review the studies related to virtual education in Medical Sciences in Iran.Key words such as virtual education, e-learning, computerized education issued by Google scholar databases were used to find articles in Persian and for Latin articles, PUBMED and Scopus databases were used. As the result, a limited number of 35 articles in the areas of educational software, multimedia tools, web-based training, studies using e-learning system, using email and mobile phones, electronic testing and continuing education via electronic methods were found and 27 of them were selected. The majority of the studies suggested that the effectiveness of virtual education is equal to or more than that of traditional education. Moreover, students and faculty members have a positive outlook on using virtual education in most of the mentioned studies and are highly satisfied by them. However, since the effect of virtual education on learning and the satisfaction of the learners can differ depending on the method employed, the different majors of the medical sciences require more extensive studies in Iran.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Virtual Education
  • Distance learning
  • e
  • Learning
  • Blended Education
  • Computerized Education

Akaberian, Sh, Bahreyni, M, Shehamat, Sh, etal 2014, Problem-based learning in continuing medical education review of randomized controlled trials, Canadian family physician. Vol.60, No. 2, Pp. 157-165.
vafaei, A, mohammadi,M, khiabani, B 1388, Attitudes and practices of faculty members to implement virtual education system in mashhad university of medical sciences, Horizons of medical education development,Vol.5 {in persian}.
Vafaei, A, Mohammadi,M, khiabani, B 1388, Knowledge and attitude of mashhad university of medical sciences student towards e-learning, Horizons of medical education development, Vol.5{in persian}.
Validinezhad,A, Borghi,H 1388, Study conducted for the students of tehran university of medical sciences technology web 2 chosen in medical education, Horizons of medical education development, Vol. 5 {in persian}
Validinezhad,A, Borghi,H 1388, Study conducted for the students of tehran university of medical sciences technology web 2 chosen in medical education, Horizons of medical education development, Vol. 5 {in persian}.
Vasili,A, Memarzadeh, H, Zohorian, M 1388, Comparative study of the efficacies of lecture, hbm software and e-learning on knowledge and attitude of universities in relation to factors influencing prevention of cardiovascular disease, Horizons of medical education development, Vol. 5. {in persian}.
Bonnel, W 2008, Improving feedback to students in online courses, Nursing education perspectives, Vol. 29 No. 5, Pp. 290-294.
Bridge, Pd, Jackson, M, Robinson, L 2009, The effectiveness of streaming video on medical student learning: a case study, Medical education online, Vol. 14, No.11.
Davies, Bs, Rafique, J, et al 2012, Mobile medical education (momed)-how mobile information resources contribute to learning for undergraduate clinical students-a mixed methods study, Bmc medical education, Vol. 12, No. 1, Pp. 1.
Emami, H, Aghdasi, M, Asousheh, A 2009, Electronic learning in medical education, Pajouhesh Dar Pezeshki, Vol. 33, No. 2, Pp. 102-111.
Noohi, E, Khandan,M, Mirzazadeh, A 1388, Designing e-learning and its impact on cognitive science type 2 diabetes patients, horizons of medical education development, Vol.5{in persian}.
Freeman, Mk, Schrimsher, Rh, Kendrach, Mg 2006, Student perceptions of online lectures and webct in an introductory drug information course, American journal of pharmaceutical education, Vol. 70, No. 6.
Ghomi, H, Zadegan, A 1388, Continuing education of withelectronic methods for ear, nose and pharyngeal disease experts in tabriz university of medical sciences in year 88, Horizons of medical education development, Vol. 5. {in persian}.
farhudi, H 1388, Application of mobile learning in nursing education: teaching model introduced form, Horizons of medical education development, Vol. 5. {in persian}.
Harden,R 2006, Trends and the future of postgraduate medical education, Emergency medicine journal, Vol. 23, No.10, Pp. 798-802.
Hugenholtz,Ni, Sluiter, Jk, et al 2012, Ebm e-learning: feasible and effective for occupational physicians in different countries, Safety and health at work, Vol. 3, No. 3, Pp.199.
Jilardidamavandi, A, mahyuddin, R, et al 2011, Academic achievement of students with different learning styles, International journal of psychological studies, Vol. 3, No.2, Pp. 186.
Khan, Bh 1998, Web‐based instruction (wbi): an introduction, Educational media international, Vol. 35, No. 2, Pp. 63-71.
Khazaei, S, Rashedi, E 2012, Blended learning approaches in medical science: a review article, Pajouhan scientific journal, Vol. 11, No.1, Pp. 6-11.
Ghabchi, K, Aliabadi,Kh,Golian, SH 1388, The effect of learning strategies (note taking or network) maternal and child health in the design of e-learning course on learning and retention of students of tehran university of medical sciences, Horizons of medical education development, Vol. 5. {in persian}.
Lee, B-c, Yoon, J-o, Lee, I 2009, Learners’ acceptance of e-learning in south korea: theories and results, Computers & education, Vol. 53, No.4, Pp. 1320-1329.
Dianat,M, Dianat, M 1388, Graduate students need to access electronic resources, Horizons of medical education development, Vol. 5. {in persian}.
Manolis, C, Burns, Dj, et al 2013, Assessing experiential learning styles: a methodological reconstruction and validation of the kolb learning style inventory, Learning and individual differences, Vol. 23, Pp.44-52.
Mehdizadeh, F, Mehdizadeh, H, et al 2012, A study on electronic learning readiness of Journal of ilam university of medical sciences, Vol. 19 No. 4, Pp. 62-69.
Dadgostarnia,M, Vafmehr, V 1388, Effectiveness of e-learning integrative approach to physical examination with additional training in small groups with training in small groups, Horizons of medical education development, Vol. 5. {in persian}.
Shariati, M, Yunesian,M, et al 2010, The use of virtual patients for surgery education to medical students : a randomized controlled trial, Journal of knowledge and health , Vol. 3 No. 1.
Mojtahedzadeh, R, Mohammadi, A, Emami, A 2011, Instructional design, implementation, and evaluation of an e-learning system, an experience in tehran university of medical sciences, Iranian journal of medical education, Vol. 11 , No. 4, Pp. 348-359.
Moradi Dirin, M, Verdi, M, Delkhah, H, etal 2013, Impact of Pharmacy Training Software, on pharmacy students’ knowledge in Zabol University of Medical Sciences and Their Opinion about it, Iranian Journal of Medical Education, Vol. 12, No. 12, Pp.925-934.
Najafi, M, Eteraf-oskouei, T 2011, Pharmacy students’ attitude in tabriz university of medical sciences toward using computerized simulations in teaching, Iranian journal of medical education, Vol. 11 No.4, Pp. 308-317.
Pour Damghan,N, a Sarraf nezhad,A, Forouzesh, A 1388, The impact of electronic mail on improving english language skills of faculty members at the university of medical sciences. Horizons of medical education development, Vol. 5. {in persian}.
Noori, A, Kouti, L, et al 2014, A review on different virtual learning methods in pharmacy education, Journal of pharmaceutical care, Vol. 2, No.2, Pp. 77-82.
Ozkan, S, Koseler, R, Baykal, N 2009, Evaluating learning management systems: adoption of hexagonal e-learning assessment model in higher education, Transforming government: people, process and policy, Vol. 3, No.2, Pp.111-130.
Safaei, Z, Emadi, A, Taheri, M 2012, Assessment of satisfaction of cme’s participants about e- learning programs in semnan university of medical sciences in
2011, The journal of medical education and development, Vol. 7 No. 2, Pp. 13-20.
Seyedi, M, Yaghoubi, Z 2012, Designing and implementing blended learning in the field of rehabilitation, Magazine of e-learning distribution in academy (media), Vol. 3, No.2, Pp. 42-50.
Saedi,Sh, Vafei, A 1388, Effect of distance e-learning programs on student academic achievement, Horizons of medical education development, Vol. 5. {in persian}.
Shirazi, M, Zeinalou, A, Alaeddini, F 2004, The view points of general surgeons attending cme programs regarding their educational needs, in tehran university of medical sciences, Iranian journal of medical education, Vol. 4, No. 1, Pp. 31-36.
Smits, P, De graaf, L, et al 2012, Case-based e-learning to improve the attitude of medical students towards occupational health, a randomised controlled trial, Occupational and environmental medicine, Vol. 69, No. 4, Pp. 280-283.
Stricker, D, Weibel, D, Wissmath, B 2011, Efficient learning using a virtual learning environment in a university class, Computers & education, Vol. 56, No.2, Pp. 495-504.
Tavangarian, D, Leypold, ME, Nölting, K, etal 2004, Is e-learning the Solution for Individual Learning, Electronic Journal of E-learning , Vol.2, Pp. 273-280.
Thurmond, V, Wambach, K 2004, Understanding interactions in distance education: a review of the literature, International journal of instructional technology and distance learning, Vol. 1, No. 1.
Masoudi,T, Nikfarjam, Z 1388, Comprehensive survey of knowledge, attitude and skills in students at mashhad university of medical sciences e-learning system , horizons of medical education development, Vol. 5. {in persian}.
Thurmond, V, Wambach, K 1388, Qualitative analysis of genetics final electronic exams at mashhad university of medical sciences, Horizons of medical education development, Vol. 5.{in persian}.
Alipour,V, Taleb,Z, Ghazi, F 1388, Increasing internal locus of control medical students using virtual training alongside traditional training, Horizons of medical education development, Vol. 5. {in persian}.
Ghasemi,Z, Falah,P 1388, Multimedia projects in the qazvin university in 1388, Horizons of medical education development, Vol. 5. {in persian}.
Zaman, B, Babri, H 2013, Application of planning blended learning based on swot pattern in teaching-learning activities of the isfahan university of medical sciences, iran, Strides dev med educ, Vol. 10 No. 1, Pp. 95-108.
Zandi, S, Abedi, D, et al 2004, Electronic learning as a new educational technology and its integration in medical education curricula, Iranian journal of medical education, Vol. 4, No.1, Pp. 61-70.
Zolfaghari, M, Mehrdad, N, Parsa yekta, Z, etal 2007, The effect of lecture and e-learning methods on learning mother and child health course in nursing students, Iranian journal of medical education, Vol. 7, No.1, Pp. 31-39.
Zolfaghari, M, Negarandeh, R, Ahmadi, F 2011, The evaluation of a blended e-learning program for nursing and midwifery students in tehran university of medical sciences, Iranian journal of medical education, Vol. 10, No. 4, Pp. 398-409.
Saberian, M, Salemi, S 2002, How to write lesson plan? Tehran: Salemi Publication.
Taghipour, A 1999, Introduction to Education and Lesson Planning, Tehran: Agah Publication, Pp.180.