تاثیر آموزش به روش واقعیت افزوده بر یادگیری، یادداری و بار شناختی در درس زیست شناسی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری برنامه ریزی درسی، گروه علوم تربیتی، دانشکده علوم انسانی، واحد اراک، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی ، اراک، ایران.

2 عضو هیات علمی، گروه علوم تربیتی، دانشکده علوم انسانی، واحد اراک، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی ، اراک، ایران.

3 عضو هیات علمی، گروه علوم تربیتی و روانشناسی، دانشکده علوم انسانی، دانشگاه اراک، اراک، ایران.

4 عضو هیات علمی، گروه علوم تربیتی، دانشکده علوم انسانی، واحد اراک، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، اراک، ایران.

10.22118/edc.2019.197513.1125

چکیده

روش های نوین تدریس مبتنی بر فناوری های جدید مانند واقعیت افزوده در پی ارایه فرصتهایی جهت انتقال اطلاعات، بهبود یادگیری و کاهش مشکلات یادگیری می باشد. هدف پژوهش حاضر تعیین تاثیر آموزش به روش واقعیت افزوده بر یادگیری، یادداری و بار شناختی در درس زیست شناسی بود. روش پژوهش نیمه آزمایشی و با استفاده از طرح پیش آزمو  پس آزمون باگروه کنترل بود. جامعه آماری شامل کلیه دانش آموزان دختر پایه دهم شهر اراک بود که بر اساس شرایط و امکانات اجرایی، از ناحیه یک و دو آموزش و پرورش شهر اراک دو مدرسه به تصادف انتخاب و روش جایگزینی کلاس ها در گروه آزمایش و کنترل به صورت تصادفی بود. برای اندازه گیری میزان یادگیری و یادداری از آزمون پیشرفت تحصیلی محقق ساخته و جهت اندازه میزان بارشناختی از مقیاس درجه بندی پاس و ون مرینبوئر استفاده شد. داده ها با استفاده از تحلیل کوواریانس و اندازه گیری مکرر تجزیه و تحلیل شد. یافته ها نشان داد یادگیری و یادداری گروه واقعیت افزوده به صورت معناداری بیشتراز گروهی بود که به روش سنتی آموزش دیده بودند. دیگر یافته ها حاکی از کاهش چشمگیر بارشناختی گروه واقعیت افزوده نسبت به گروه کنترل بود. با توجه به یافته ها می توان نتیجه گرفت که استفاده درست از واقعیت افزوده در محیط یادگیری به کاربران اجازه می دهد یادگیری اثربخش و فراموشی کمتری داشته باشند. بنابراین توصیه می شود از پتانسیل های این فناوری در آموزش دروس مختلف استفاده شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effect of Augmented Reality Training on Learning, Retention and Cognitive Load in Biology Lessons

نویسندگان [English]

  • Farzaneh Gharibi 1
  • Faezeh Nateghi 2
  • Saeid Moosavipour 3
  • Mohammad Seifi 4
1 PhD Student in Educational Planning, Department of Educational Sciences, Faculty of Humanities, Arak Branch, Islamic Azad University, Arak, Iran.
2 Faculty of Member, Department of Educational Sciences, Faculty of Humanities, Arak Branch, Islamic Azad University, Arak, Iran.
3 Faculty of Member, Department of Educational Sciences, Faculty of Humanities, Arak Branch, Islamic Azad University, Arak, Iran.
4 Faculty of Member, Department of Educational Sciences, Faculty of Humanities, Arak Branch, Islamic Azad University, Arak, Iran.
چکیده [English]

New teaching methods based on new technologies such as Augmented Reality seek to provide opportunities for transferring information, improving learning and reducing learning problems. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of augmented reality training on learning, retention and cognitive load in biology lessons. The research method was semi experimental with pretest-posttest design with control group. The statistical population consisted of all 10th grade female students in Arak city Based on the conditions and facilities, two schools were randomly selected Arak City One and Two Education District , and the method of replacement of classes in experimental and control group was random. Academic achievement test was used to measure learning and retention and Pass and Van Merinbauer rating scales were used to measure cognitive load. Data were analyzed using analysis of covariance and repeated measures. Findings showed that learning and retention of augmented reality group were significantly more than those trained in traditional way. Other findings showed a significant decrease in external cognitive load in the augmented reality group compared to the control group. Based on the findings, it can be concluded that the correct use of augmented reality in the learning environment allows users to have Effective learning and less forgetting. Therefore, it is recommended to use the potentials of this technology in teaching different courses.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Augmented reality
  • Learning
  • retention
  • Cognitive Load
  • biology
Acosta, J.L.B., Navarro, S.M.B., Gesa, R.F. and Kinshuk, K., 2019. Framework for designing motivational augmented reality applications in vocational education and training. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 35(3).
Akçayır, M. and Akçayır, G., 2017. Advantages and challenges associated with augmented reality for education: A systematic review of the literature. Educational Research Review, 20, pp.1-11.
Adams, C. M., & Wilson, T. D 2011, Virtual cerebral ventricular system: An MR‐based three‐dimensional computer model. Anatomical sciences education,vol. 4, No. 6, Pp. 340-347.
Ahadi, F., Soleimani, M  2014, Comparison of the Effect of Two Sample and Partially Solved Sample Teaching Methods on Cognitive Burden of Students in Specialized Medical Language Courses. Iranian Journal of Medical Education, vol.14 ., No.4, Pp. 302-291 . [in Persian]
Al-Azawi, R., Albadi, A., Moghaddas, R. and Westlake, J., 2019, April. Exploring the Potential of Using Augmented Reality and Virtual Reality for STEM Education. In International Workshop on Learning Technology for Education in Cloud (pp. 36-44). Springer, Cham.
Albrecht, U. V., Folta-Schoofs, K., Behrends, M., & Von Jan, U 2013, Effects of mobile augmented reality learning compared to textbook learning on medical students: randomized controlled pilot study. Journal of medical Internet research, vol. 15., No. 8.
Azuma, R.T., 1997. A survey of augmented reality. Presence: Teleoperators & Virtual Environments, vol. 6.,  No. 4, Pp.355-385.
Benbelkacem, S., Zenati-Henda, N., Zerarga, F., et all 2011, Augmented reality platform for collaborative E-maintenance systems. In Augmented reality-some emerging application areas. IntechOpen.
Bujak, K. R., Radu, I., Catrambone, R., et all 2013, A psychological perspective on augmented reality in the mathematics classroom. Computers & Education, No.68, Pp. 536–544.
Calleia, A. M., & Howard, S. J  2014, Assessing what students know: Effects of assessment type on spelling performance and relations to working memory. Student Engagement Education Matters, No.4, Pp. 14–24.
Chao, P. Y., & Chen, G. D. (2009). Augmenting paper-based learning with mobile phones. Interacting with Computers, No.21, Pp. 173–185.
Chen, P., Liu, X., Cheng, W., & Huang, R 2017, A review of using Augmented Reality in Education from 2011 to 2016. In Innovations in smart learning ,Pp. 13-18. Springer, Singapore.
Chen, Y. C., Chi, H. L., Hung, W. H., et all 2011, Use of tangible and augmented reality models in engineering graphics courses. Journal of Professional Issues in Engineering Education and Practice, vol.137., No. 4, Pp. 267-276.
Cheng, K. H., & Tsai, C. C 2013, Affordances of augmented reality in science learning: Suggestions for future research. Science Education and Technology, vol. 22., No.4, Pp. 449–462.
De Freitas, S., Rebolledo‐Mendez, G., Liarokapis, F., et all 2010, Learning as immersive experiences: Using the four‐dimensional framework for designing and evaluating immersive learning experiences in a virtual world. British Journal of Educational Technology, vol. 41., No. 1, Pp. 69-85.
Dede, C  2009, Immersive interfaces for engagement and learning. science, vol. 323.,No.5910, Pp. 66-69.
Deveci Topal A, Ocak MA 2014, The effect of the anatomy course prepared in the blended learning environment on students’ academic achievement. Educ Tech Theor Pract ,No.4 . Pp. 48–62.
Di Serio, Á., Ibáñez, M. B., & Kloos, C. D 2013, Impact of an augmented reality system on students' motivation for a visual art course. Computers & Education, No. 68, Pp. 586-596.
Dunleavy, M., Dede, C., & Mitchell, R 2009, Affordances and limitations of immersive participatory augmented reality simulations for teaching and learning. Science Education and Technology, vol.18., No. 1, Pp 7–22.
Farajollahi, M., Zarif Sanaei, N 2009, ICT based education in higher education. Quarterly Journal of Education Strategies in Medical Sciences, vol.2 ., No. 4, Pp.171-167. [in Persian]
Foroughi Nia, H., Seyyed Mimzapour S.Y 2014, Globalization and the Challenges of the Education System in the Light of New Information Technologies, Cultural Engineering, vol. 8., No. 80, Pp. 157-139. [in Persian]
Ganguly, P. K 2010, Teaching and Learning of Anatomy in the 21st Century: Direction and the Strategies. The Open Medical Education Journal, vol. 3., No. 1.
Gharakhani, H., Soleimani, M., Soleimani, A  2018, Identifying Factors Influencing the Use of Active Teaching Methods by Physical Education Teachers of Ilam Province, Research in Sport Management and Motor Behavior (Motor Sciences and Sport), vol.11., No.22, Pp.176-169. [in Persian]
Garzon, J. and Acevedo, J., 2019. A Meta-analysis of the impact of Augmented Reality on students’ learning effectiveness. Educational Research Review.
Hajiannia, S., Ahmadi, Gh., and Exiles, S. A 2006, The Impact of a Biology Film Book on Academic Achievement in High School Students. Curriculum Research, vol. 1., No. 12, Pp.27-40.
Heinz, M., Büttner, S. and Röcker, C., 2019, June. Exploring training modes for industrial augmented reality learning. In Proceedings of the 12th ACM International Conference on PErvasive Technologies Related to Assistive Environments (pp. 398-401). ACM.
Hua, J., Holton, K., Miller, A., Ibikunle, I. and Pico, C.C., 2019. Augmented Reality and Its Role in Abdominal Laparoscopic Surgical.
Huang, K.T., Ball, C., Francis, J., Ratan, R., Boumis, J. and Fordham, J., 2019. Augmented Versus Virtual Reality in Education: An Exploratory Study Examining Science Knowledge Retention When Using Augmented Reality/Virtual Reality Mobile Applications. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 22(2), pp.105-110.
Huang, H.-W., Wu, C.-W., & Chen, N.-S 2012, The effectiveness of using procedural scaffoldings in a paper-plus-smartphone collaborative learning context. Computers & Education, vol.59., No. 2, Pp. 250-259.
Jamali, S. S., Shiratuddin, M. F., & Wong, K. W 2015, Educational tools: A review of interfaces of mobile-augmented reality (mAR) applications. In Innovations and advances in computing, informatics, systems sciences, networking and engineering (Pp. 569-573). Springer, Cham.
Johnson, E. O., Charchanti, A. V., & Troupis, T. G  2012, Modernization of an anatomy class: From conceptualization to implementation. A case for integrated multimodal–multidisciplinary teaching. Anatomical sciences education, vol.5 ., No. 6, Pp.354-366.
Kalyuga, S 2009, Managing cognitive load in adaptive multimedia learning (Pp. 198-216). Hershey, NY: Information Science Reference.
Kesim, M., & Ozarslan, Y  2012 , Augmented reality in education: current technologies and the potential for education. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, No.47, Pp. 297-302.
Kirkley, B. S. E., & Kirkley, J. R 2004, Creating Next Generation Blended Learning Environments Using Mixed Reality , Video Games and Simulations, TechTrends ,vol.49 ., No. 3, Pp. 42-53.
Kirner, T. G., Reis, F. M. V., & Kirner, C 2012, June, Development of an interactive book with augmented reality for teaching and learning geometric shapes. In 7th Iberian Conference on Information Systems and Technologies (CISTI 2012) (Pp. 1-6). IEEE.‏
Kiryakova, G., Angelova, N. and Yordanova, L., 2018. The potential of augmented reality to transform education into smart education. TEM Journal, 7(3), p.556.
Klatzky, R. L., Wu, B., Shelton, D., & Stetten, G 2008, Effectiveness of augmented-reality visualization versus cognitive mediation for learning actions in near space. ACM Transactions on Applied Perception (TAP), vol. 5., No. 1, Pp. 1-23.
Küçük, S., Kapakin, S., & Göktaş, Y 2016, Learning anatomy via mobile augmented reality: effects on achievement and cognitive load. Anatomical sciences education, vol.9 .,No. 5, Pp. 411-421.
Küçük, S., Yýlmaz, R. M., & Göktaþ, Y 2014, Augmented reality for learning English: Achievement, attitude and cognitive load levels of students. Education & Science/Egitim ve Bilim, vol.39 ., No. 176, Pp. 383-392.
Lee By Kangdon 2012, Augmented Reality in Education and Training [Journal]. - colorado : techtrends, Vol.  2., No. 56.
Liu, C.-hong 2010, The comparison of learning effectiveness between traditional face-to-face learning and e-learning among goal-oriented users. 6th International Conference on Digital Content, Multimedia Technology and its Applications (IDC), Pp. 255,260.
McCuskey, R. S., Carmichael, S. W., & Kirch, D. G 2005, The importance of anatomy in health professions education and the shortage of qualified educators. Academic Medicine, vol.80 ., No. 4, Pp. 349-351.
McKeown, P. P., Heylings, D. J. A., Stevenson, M., et all 2003, The impact of curricular change on medical students' knowledge of anatomy. Medical Education, vol.37 ., No. 11, Pp. 954-961.
Mejías Borrero, A., & Andújar Márquez, J. M 2012, A pilot study of the effectiveness of augmented reality to enhance the use of remote labs in electrical engineering education. Science Education and Technology, vol.21., No. 5, Pp. 540–557.
Mekni, M., & Lemieux, A 2014, Augmented reality: Applications, challenges and future trends. Applied Computational Science, Pp. 205-214.
Moro, C., Štromberga, Z., Raikos, A. and Stirling, A. 2017. The effectiveness of virtual and augmented reality in health sciences and medical anatomy. Anatomical sciences education, 10(6), pp.549-559.
Nedim, S 2013, The effect of augmented reality treatment on learning, cognitive load, and spatial visualization abilities. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Kentucky, Lexington, USA.
Nincarean, D., Alia, M. B., Halim, N. D. A., & Rahman, M. H. A 2013, Mobile augmented reality: The potential for education. Procedia-social and behavioral sciences, No.103, Pp.  657-664.
Paas, F. G., Van Merriënboer, J. J., & Adam, J. J 1994, Measurement of cognitive load in instructional research. Perceptual and motor skills, vol. 79., No. 1, Pp. 419-430.
Paas, F., Renkl, A., & Sweller, J 2003, Cognitive load theory and instructional design: Recent developments. Educational Psychologist, No.38, Pp. 1–4.
Paas, F., van Gog, T., & Sweller, J 2010, Cognitive load theory: New conceptualizations, specifications, and integrated research perspectives. Educational Psychology Review, vol.22., No.  2 , Pp. 115-121.
Papadopoulou, P., Chui, K.T., Daniela, L. and Lytras, M.D., 2019. Virtual and Augmented Reality in Medical Education and Training: Innovative Ways for Transforming Medical Education in the 21st Century. In Cognitive Computing in Technology-Enhanced Learning (pp. 109-150). IGI Global.
Plass, J. L., Moreno, R., & Brünken, R 2010, Cognitive load theory. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Radu, I., 2014. Augmented reality in education: a meta-review and cross-media analysis. Personal and Ubiquitous Computing, 18(6), pp.1533-1543.
Schnotz, W., & Kürschner, C 2007, A reconsideration of cognitive load theory.  Educational Psychology Review, vol.19,. No.  4 , Pp. 469-508.
Schnotz, W., Fries, S., & Horz, H 2009, Motivational aspects of cognitive load theory. Contemporary motivation research: From global to local perspectives, Pp. 69-96.
Shabani, H 2012, Educational Skills - Volume One: Teaching Methods and Techniques, Tehran, University of Humanities Textbooks (Samt). [in Persian]
Sweller, J 2011, Cognitive load theory. In Psychology of learning and motivation (Vol. 55, Pp.  37-76). Academic Press.
Sweller, J., van Merrienboer, J., & Paas, F 1998, Cognitive architecture and instructional design. Educational Psychology Review, vol. 10., No.  3 , Pp. 251-296. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1022193728205.
Tarng, W., & Ou, K. L 2012, March, A study of campus butterfly ecology learning system based on augmented reality and mobile learning. In 2012 IEEE Seventh International Conference on Wireless, Mobile and Ubiquitous Technology in Education (Pp. 62-66). IEEE.
Topuz, Y., N/A Correction:(O-74) 2018, Virtual reality technology in anatomy education. Anatomy, 12(3), pp.158-158.
Van Krevelen, D. en R. Poelman  2010,‘A survey of augmented reality technologies, applications and limitations.’. International Journal of Virtual Reality, vol.9 .,No.  2 , Pp.  1.
 Van Krevelen, D., & Poelman, R 2007, Augmented reality: Technologies, applications, and limitations. Vrije Univ. Amsterdam, Dep. Comput. Sci.
Veysi Kahareh, S., Khodakhabi, R., Farhadi, M 2015, The Impact of Inductive Thinking Biology Education on Biology Lessons in Secondary School Students. Curriculum Research, vol.11 .,No. 1 , Pp. 99-109. [in Persian]
Vilkoniene, M 2009, Influence of Augmented Reality Technology upon Pupils' Knowledge about Human Digestive System: The Results of the Experiment. Online Submission, vol. 6 ., No. 1 , Pp. 36-43.
Wang, X., Kim, M. J., Love, P. E. D., et all 2013, Augmented Reality in built environment: Classification and implications for future research. Automation in Construction, No.32, Pp. 1-13.
Wei, X., Weng, D., Liu, Y., et all Y 2015, Teaching based on augmented reality for a technical creative design course.Computers & Education, No.81, Pp. 221–234.
Wojciechowski, R., & Cellary, W 2013 Evaluation of learners’ attitude toward learning in ARIES augmented reality environments. Computers and Education, No.68, Pp. 570-585.
Wu, H. K., Lee, S. W. Y., Chang, H. Y., et all 2013, Current status, opportunities and challenges of augmented reality in education, Computers and Education, No.62, Pp 41-49.
Yuen, S. C. Y., Yaoyuneyong, G., & Johnson, E 2011, Augmented reality: An overview and five directions for AR in education. Journal of Educational Technology Development and Exchange (JETDE),vol. 4. No. 1, P 11.
Zare, H., Sarmadi, M. R., Fardanesh, H., et all 2012, The Effectiveness of Observing Educational Design Principles (14 Principles of Multimedia by Van Merenborough and Custer) on Learning and Retention in Multimedia Learning Environments. Management and Planning in Educational Systems. No. 8, Pp. 9-27. [in Persian]