شناسایی طرح‌واره‌های ناسازگار اولیه و تعیین نقش آن‌ها در اضطراب آشکار و پنهان دانشجویان مشروطی، افت تحصیلی و ضعف تحصیلی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار، گروه روانشناسی، واحد بوشهر، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، بوشهر، ایران؛

2 دانشجوی دکتری، رشته ی روانشناسی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد بوشهر، بوشهر، ایران.

چکیده

مشکلات تحصیلی باعث افت، مشروط شدن یا ترک تحصیل می­شود و شناسایی عوامل مرتبط با آن به پیشگیری کمک می­کند. این تحقیق با هدف شناسایی طرح­واره‌های ناسازگار اولیه و تعیین نقش آن‌ها در اضطراب آشکار و پنهان دانشجویان در سه گروه مشروطی، افت تحصیلی و ضعف تحصیلی، انجام شد. پژوهش حاضر از نوع توصیفی-­همبستگی است. جامعه‌ی آماری این پژوهش شامل دانشجویان مشروطی، افت تحصیلی و ضعف تحصیلی کارشناسی دانشگاه علوم پزشکی اهواز در سال تحصیلی 1397-1398 بودند. نمونه شامل دانشجویان پنج رشته­ی پرستاری، مامایی، بهداشت عمومی، تغذیه، گفتار درمانی و نمونه­گیری به تعداد ۱۴۹ نفر بود که با روش نمونه­گیری خوشه­ای از میان پانزده رشته­ی کارشناسی انتخاب و مورد مطالعه قرار گرفتند. آزمودنی‌ها پرسشنامه استاندارد طرح­واره­های ناسازگار اولیهیانگ و پرسشنامه اضطراب آشکار و پنهان اشپیل برگر را تکمیل کردند. برای تجزیه‌ و تحلیل آماری ضریب همبستگی پیرسون، تحلیل رگرسیون و تحلیل واریانس با استفاده از نرم‌افزار spss16 محاسبه شد. در گروه مشروط­، دارای افت و ضعف تحصیلی رابطه­ی اضطراب آشکار و پنهان با طرح­واره­های محرومیت هیجانی، رهاشدگی، بی­اعتمادی/بدرفتاری، انزوای اجتماعی/بیگانگی، نقص/شرم، شکست، وابستگی/بیکفایتی، آسیب پذیری و گرفتار، معنی­دار بود. همچنین طرح­واره­های ناسازگار اولیه ۶/۵۳ درصد اضطراب آشکار و پنهان را تبیین می­کنند. ضرایب بتا نشان داد طرح­واره شکست بیشترین تأثیر و طرح­واره بی اعتمادی/بدرفتاری کمترین تأثیر را بر اضطراب دانشجویان دارند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Identification of Early Maladaptive Schemas and Determination of their Effects on Obvious and Hidden Anxiety of Probationary Students, Academic Failure and Academic Weakness

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ezat Deyreh 1
  • Iman Faragollah Chaaby 2
1 Assistant Professor, Department of Psychology, Faculty of Literature and Humanities, Bushehr Branch, Islamic Azad University, Bushehr, Iran.
2 Ph.D. student of psychology, Bushehr Branch, Islamic Azad University, Bushehr, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Psychological problems can lead to dropout or academic failure, and also identifying them would help prevent them. The purpose of this study was to identify early maladaptive schemas and to determine their role in students' obvious and hidden anxiety in three groups: probationary students, academic failure and academic weakness. This research was a descriptive-correlational study.Then the statistical population of this study included the probationary students, academic failure and academic weakness those were studying for undergraduate degree in Ahvaz Medical Sciences University in the academic year 1397-1978; moreover, the sample size consisted of 149 students of nursing, midwifery, public health, nutrition and speech therapy who were selected by cluster sampling from fifteen undergraduate fields. After subjects completed two questionnaires of Young Schema Questionnaire and Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, for statistical analysis, Pearson correlation coefficient, regression analysis and variance analysis were calculated using spss16 software. Consequently, in the conditional group, there was a significant relationship between apparent and hidden anxiety and schizophrenia with emotional deprivation schemes, abandonment, mistrust / maltreatment, social isolation / alienation, defect / shame, failure, dependency / inadequacy, vulnerability, and embarrassment. Moreover, academic problems triggered activation of early maladaptive schemas and aggravated students' anxiety; besides, early maladaptive schemas also accounted for 53/6% of the apparent and latent anxiety. Beta coefficients showed that failure schema had the most effect; in contrast, schema of mistrust / misconduct had the least effect on students' anxiety.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • early maladaptive schemas
  • obvious and hidden anxiety
  • academic failure
Azad Yekta, M 2012, Investigating the Role of Coping Strategies and Attribution Styles as Predictors of Academic Failure in Students of Islamic Azad University of Islam City, Journal of Psychological Achievements (Educational Sciences and Psychology), Vol. 19, NO.1, Pp. 99-116. [In Persian].

Borjali M, Madbeigi Z, Golshani, F 2017, The Relationship between Early Maladaptive Schemas, Maternal Attachment Styles, and Anxiety Disorders in Children, Quarterly Journal of Research, Vol.14, N.2, Pp. 31-48. [In Persian].

Behdani F, Sargolzaei M, Qorbani, E 2000, Study of the Relationship between Life and Depression and Anxiety in Sabzevar Students, Secrets-Journal of Sabzevar School of Medical Sciences, Vol.7, No.2, Pp.27-37. [In Persian].

Bertrams A, Englert Ch, Dickhauser, O 2010, Self – control strength in the relation between trait test anxiety and state anxiety, Journal of Research in personality, Vol.44, No.6, pp. 738-741.

Divandary H, Ahey Q, Akbari, H et al 2007, Young Schema Questionnaire Short Form (SQ-SF): Evaluation of Psychometric Properties and Factor Structure among Students of Islamic Azad University, Kashmar Branch, 2007-2006, Islamic Azad University of Bojnourd Educational Proceeding 2009; vol.20, no.5, p.105. [In Persian]

Emami Ezat A, Hashemi Nasab M, Hashemi Nosrat Abadi, T 2014, The role of early maladaptive unconscious schemas on social anxiety with regard to mediating effects of emotional suppression,1st International Conference on Psychology and Behavioral Sciences. [In Persian].

Gholami Tazeh Abad M, Amoo khalili M, Robat Maily, S 2017, The role of early maladaptive schemas and loneliness in predicting the meaning of life in Ilam University students, International Conference on Psychology, Counseling. [In Persian].

Golzar HR, Aflakseir A, Molazade, G 2016, Structural Equations Modeling of dysfunctional attitudes and Depression symptoms: Investigation of the Mediation Role of Ruminative Response Style, Iranian Journal of Psychiatry and Clinical Psychology, Vol.22, No.4, Pp. 318-329. [In Persian].

Ghaderi F, Kalantari M, Mehrabi H, et al 2016, The Effectiveness of Group Schema Therapy on Balancing Early Maladaptive Schemas and Reducing Symptoms of Social Anxiety Disorder, Journal of Psychological Studies & Clinical Issues, Vol.6, No.24, Pp. 1-28. [In Persian].

Ghiasi M, Molavy H, Neshatdost H, et al 2012, Investigating the Factor Structure of Yang Schema Questionnaire (Third Version of Short Form) in Tehran, Journal of Psychological Achievements (Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz), Vol.1, No.3, Pp. 64-72. [In Persian].

Haghdost A, Ansary R, Taheri, Ch 2015, The Relationship between Social-Demographic Characteristics of Medical Students of Iran and their Academic Degree, Journal of Developmental Strides in Education, Vol.12, NO.4, Pp. 470-485. [In Persian].

Karami M, Dehdashty A, Bahrami, M 2018, Prevalence of Test Anxiety among Students of Semnan University of Medical Sciences in 2016: A Brief Report, Journal of Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences, Vol.17, No3. , Pp.  275-282. [In Persian].

Khorasani F, Shabani, Z 2017, Comparison of Early Maladaptive Schemas, Coping Strategies and Emotional Maturity in Students with Emotional Injury Syndrome, Journal of Social Health, Vol.4, No.2, Pp.  137-146. [In Persian].

Maleki Z, Nadery I, Ashory J, et al 2015, The Effect of Schema Therapy on Reducing the Symptoms of Anxiety Disorders and Depression in Nursing and Midwifery Students, Journal of Yazd Medical Education Research and Development Center, Vol.10, No.1: 49-56. [In Persian].

Masoodi Sh, Hatami M, Modares Qarvi M, et al 2016, The Relational Role of Early Maladaptive Schemas in Attachment and Anxiety Styles, Journal of thought & Behavior in clinical psychology, Vol. 11, No.39, Pp. 37-46. [In Persian].

Mehrabi Nia F, Shamsaee, M 2016, The mediating role of early maladaptive schemas in relationship between attachment styles and anxiety of death among cancer patients, Journal of though & behavior in clinical psychology, Vol. 11, No.39, Pp. 37-46. [In Persian].

Mohammadi SD, Nouruzinejad GH, Rahmatinejad P, et al 2017, Correlation between Attachment Styles and Early Maladaptive Schemas in Students, Qom University of Medical Science Journal, Vol.11, No, 9, Pp.52-60. [In Persian].

Montazeri MS, Kaveh Farsani Z, Ali Mehrabi H ,et al 2012, The relationship between early maladaptive schemas and depression among male students of Falavarjan, Journal of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Vol.97, No. 20, Pp. 179-188. [In Persian].

Naderi, Y 2015, Early maladaptive schemas as a risk factor in people with traumatic stress disorder, Quarterly Journal of Cognitive Sciences, Vol. 17, NO.3, Pp, 55-64. [In Persian].

Pourband Bani Mohammad E, Nadery Shad Sh,  Kobraee F, et al 2016, A Study of Academic Failure and Some Related Factors from the Viewpoint of Students of Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Research in Medical Education, Vol.9, No.3, Pp. 65-72. [In Persian].

Reindl M, Tulis M, Dresel M 2018, Associations between friends, academic emotions and achievement: Individual differences in enjoyment and boredom, Learning and Individual Differences, No.62, pp. 164-173.

Rafaeli E, Bernstei DP, Young, JE 2010, Schema therapy: Distinctive features. Routledge.

Sohrabi, F 2015, Third Wave Psychotherapy with Special Emphasis on Schema Therapy, Journal of Clinical Psychology Studies, Vol.5, No. 18, Pp.1-14. [In Persian].

Sajjadi N, Golmohammadian M, Hojjatkhah M 2016, Effectiveness of schema therapy on academic adjustment in high school female students in Kermanshah, Journal of counseling research, Vol. 15, N.58, Pp.4-17. [In Persian].

Shahamat F, 2010, Predicting General Health Symptoms of Anxiety and Depression Based on Early Maladaptive Schemas, Tabriz University Psychology Journal, Vol.5, No. 20, Pp.103-124. [In Persian].

Saffari Nia M, Zare H, Karami H, et al 2014, The efficacy and continuing impact of group schema therapy in treating students’ social anxiety disorder, Research Journal of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Vol. 19, No. 4, Pp. 211-218. [In Persian].

Seyedmoharrami I, Pashib M, Tatari M, et al 2016, The effect of Cognitive-behavioral Group Therapy on Achievement Motivation and Academic Failure students among students of university of medical sciences, Journal of Torbat Heydariyeh University of Medical Sciences, Vol. 4,N. 1,Pp.17-23 . [In Persian].

Sheehan RB, Herring MP, Campbell, MJ 2018, longitudinal relations of mental health and motivation among elite student-athletes across a condensed season: Plausible influence of academic and athletic schedule, Psychology of Sport and Exercise, No. 37, pp.146-152.

Young, JE 1999, Young Schema Questionnaire Short Form, New York: Cognitive Therapy Center.

Young JE, Klosko, JS 1994, Reinventing your life: The breakthrough program to end negative behavior... and feel great again, New York: Plume Books.

Young J.E, Klosko J.S, Weishaar M.E 2003, Schema therapy: A practitioner's guide. Guilford Press.

Yousefnejad Shirvani M, Peyvastegar, M 2011, Life Satisfaction and Early Maladaptive Schemas in Students, Journal of Knowledge and Research in Applied Psychology, Vol.12, NO. 2, Pp.55-65. [In Persian].

Zare Soltani A, Qmary, M 2016, The Relationship between Maternal Maladaptive Schemas with Explicit and Hidden Anxiety in Elementary Girl Students, Woman and Family Studies, Vol.8, No.19,Pp. 45-62. [In Persian].